2 edition of field verification of topographic indices for use in hillslope runoff models. found in the catalog.
field verification of topographic indices for use in hillslope runoff models.
D. P. Butcher
by Huddersfield Polytechnic .
Written in English
|Contributions||Polytechnic, Huddersfield. Department of Geographical Sciences.|
Detailed monitoring over the October-March period in winters and included event-based sampling of surface runoff, suspended and particulate sediment, and dissolved and particulate phosphorus from hillslope segments (each similar to m(2)) established in a randomized block design with four replicates of each treatment. Abstract Ponderosa pine forests are a dominant land cover type in semiarid montane areas. Water supplies in major rivers of the southwestern United States depend on ponderosa pine forests since these ecosystems: (1) receive a significant amount of rainfall and snowfall, (2) intercept precipitation and transpire water, and (3) indirectly influence runoff by impacting the infiltration : Taufique Hasan Mahmood. S. Scherrer et al.: Runoff formation at hillslope Geneva Bern Basel 1 7 8 10 14 16 3 6 4 Zurich 18 12 13 Alpine Region Pre-Alpine Region Swiss Plateau Jura 15 2 0 50 km N 5 17 9 11 Alpine Region Fig. 1 Fig. 1. Map of Switzerland with the location of the 18 sites where high intensity sprinkling experiments were performed. The selection of. ~=Si where Si is the silt content of the soil ().If a, r 0, then a, is set to of each read into the model from the soil input file. Mapping units on the hillslope profile are specified to better predict the effects of basic soil physical and chemical properties on infiltration and soil erodibility.
Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service curve‐number (SCS‐CN) approach continues to be used ubiquitously in water quality models, new application methods are needed that .
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Hillslope runoff processes and models. Hydrol., Hillslope hydrology is concerned with the partition of precipitation as it passes through the vegetation and Cited by: Field Verification  Site visits to approximately a dozen field locations showed that streams tended to exist when predicted, including first‐ and second‐order streams missing from the mapped stream networks.
This observation verified the fact that first‐ and second‐order streams may be missed during the interpretation of aerial Cited by: Hillslope Runoff Processes and Modeling on field observation.
Hillslope model is Few of the infiltration models in current use are suitable for the situation in which the rainfall. Introduction. Soil erosion is a natural geomorphic process that can be accelerated by improper land use and management practices. Problems caused by soil erosion and sediment yield include the loss of soil productivity, the degradation of water quality and a reduced capacity to prevent natural disasters such as floods (Aksoy & Kavvas, ; Muta et al., ; Ahmadi et al., ).Cited by: 8.
• Topographic Index maps are grids derived from digital elevation models (DEMs). These grid include only topographical information. It makes use of an index of hydrological similarity based on topographic data. • Originally developed in the TOPMODEL framework (Beven et al., ).
• TOPMODEL was one of the first attempts to modelFile Size: 1MB. Modelling Spatial Patterns of Runoff on a Hillslope: Implications for Fine Sediment Delivery Kinsey-Henderson, A.
E.1, Post, D. A.1,3, Bartley, R.2, and Hawdon, A. H.1 [email protected], @ 1CSIRO Lan dan Water, Davies Laboratory, Townsville, QLD Australia. 2CSIRO L and and Wat er, Tr op ical F rests R search C ntre, Atherton, QLD Austr l. Simulation of soil moisture on a hillslope using multiple hydrologic models in comparison to field measurements Article in Journal of Hydrology April with Reads How we measure 'reads'.
Although many hillslope hydrologic investigations have been conducted in different climate, topographic, and geologic settings, subsurface stormflow remains a poorly characterized runoff process. Few, if any, of the existing data sets from these hillslope investigations are available for use by the scientific community for model development and validation or conceptualization of subsurface.
Hillslope runoff generation – comparing different modeling approaches. 75 Vertical fluxes predicted at the lower boundary of the dual-continuum system (by S1D model) de-termine the recharge rate for the hypodermic flow.
In general, the vertical recharge rate R [m s−1] can be calculated from a simple continuity equation. hillslope hollow and showed promising results. Brown (), in a two-dimensional model, incorporated both infiltration partitioning and overland flow into the hillslope flow model. Model simulations using available field data were compared to field observations of rainfall-pore pressure responses and were found to be in reasonable : Jason C.
Fisher. The total sub-surface flow at saturation, slope gradient and hillslope plan form are used to generate flow differences down the length of the hillslope profile.
Simulations show the generation of saturated overland flow at downslope sites where flow converges, superimposed on a hydrograph which is largely controlled by the convex (in profile Cited by: GIS-Based Predictive Models of Hillslope Runoff Generation Pro-cesses.
Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 45(4) DOI: /jx INTRODUCTION Watershed simulation models are widely used in evaluating the hydrological and water quality responses from various land use and land manage-ment. Application of two hydrologic models with different runoff mechanisms to a hillslope dominated watershed in the northeastern US: a comparison of HSPF and SMR Mark S.
Johnsona,1, William F. Coonb, Vishal K. Mehtaa, Tammo S. Steenhuisa,*, Erin S. Brooksc, Jan Bollc. The spatial correlation between the two indices for the entire hillslope is very high (r2 ‹).
The high correlation reﬂects the occurrence of the surface topographic low with the deepest soil depths, which produces similar trench face index patterns (Figure 1). Panola Three rainstorms in the hydrologically active season were studied. land use conditions on hillslopes (Lane and Nearing, ).
The WEPP technology consists of three computer models: a hillslope proftle version; a watershed version, and a grid version. The profile version computes soil detachment and deposition on a hillslope profile and provides the basis for the other two versions.
The proftie. Hillslopes provide critical watershed ecosystem services such as soil erosion control and storm flow regulation through collecting, storing, and releasing rain water. During intense rainstorms, rainfall intensity and infiltration capacity on the hillslope control Hortonian runoff while the topographic attributes of the hillslope (e.g., slope, aspect, curvature) and the channel network define Cited by: 9.
A topography-based scaling algorithm for soil hydraulic parameters at hillslope scales: Field testing and Eltahir, ]. Topographic features generate surface runoff and lateral ﬂows in the vadose zone. It can be argued upscaled soil hydraulic parameters at hillslope scales using real-world ﬁeld data from two.
A new topographic index to quantify downslope controls on local drainage K. Hjerdt,1 J. McDonnell,2 J. Seibert,3 and A. Rodhe4 Received 23 February ; accepted 23 March ; published 18 May  Topography is an important control on hydrological processes. One approach to quantify this control is the topographic ln(a/tanb) index.
By using the momentum theorem and water-balance principle, basic equations of slope runoff were derived, soil erosion by raindrop splash and runoff were discussed and a model was established for decribing hillslope soil erosion processes.
The numerical solution of the model was obtained by adopting the Preissmann format and considering the common solution-determining Cited by: 2. the upper soil layer is a key variable inﬂuencing runoff gen-eration, which is primarily a saturation–excess process in the study region (Walter et al., ; Easton et al., ).
Field data All ﬁeld sites were chosen on the basis of their proximity to the research facility, land use. A runoff risk model based on topographic wetness indices and probability distributions of rainfall and soil moisture for central New York agricultural fields models or potentially over-simplifying assumptions about the interactions between rainfall and landscape features that generate storm runoff.
We surveyed volumetric water content (VWC Cited by: 5. inﬁltration excess (Hortonian) runoff; and (iv) the hillslope plan proﬁle is described by a second-order polynomial.
Matonse and Kroll () examined the use of the kw and hsB hillslope-storage models to improve the prediction of baseﬂow and low ﬂow statis-tics.
Using a relatively simple model framework based on a mass. Testing of models is one of many important steps in their development. It can help make models more powerful tools for use in prediction. Watershed studies, such as the Bandelier watershed study (Wilcox et al., in press), give modelers an opportune chance at testing how well models work.
The importance of proving KINEROS a viable model with. Wetland occurrence in relation to topography: a test of topographic indices as moisture indicators A. Rodhe*, J. Seibert Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Villava¨ S 36 Uppsala, Sweden Abstract Information about the spatial distributions of soil moisture or groundwater levels is needed for aggregation of.
runoff for 1, streamflow-gaging stations from across the United States defines the upper boundary for small basins (less than acres). The maximum observed runoff was inches per hour (in./hour) for basins smaller than acres.
Comparison of Peak Discharge and Runoff Characteristic Estimates from the Rational Method to Field. 4. Results  We illustrate differences in the behavior of the SPI and SRI using areal averages of observed precipitation and simulated runoff in the Feather River basin.
Figure 2 shows monthly time series of the indices for four accumulation periods (1‐, 3‐, 6‐ and 12‐month) for the years – The 12‐month SPI and SRI are very similar due to the high correlation between Cited by: hensive urban-runoff study. Rainfall-runoff models were calibrated for five of them and runoff-quality models were calibrated for four of them.
(See table 1 and figure 1.) There was insufficient data to model the sixth basin. Because the models were not intended to be applied to rural basins, the rural basin was not modeled in this by: 5.
An aspect that hinders the estimate of appropriate topographic factor (LS) values for applications in GIS and results in high limitation in the use of the USLE and RUSLE erosion models [6, 7] are the dynamics of the erosive process in complex reliefs and hydrographic basins, since USLE was primarily developed for the prediction of the erosion Cited by: In this paper, we compare saturated runoff-contributing areas predicted with the VSA interpretation of the SCS-CN method with field-measured VSAs in a ha hillslope in central New York State.
We installed a trench below a VSA and simultaneously recorded water flux from different soil layers at the trench face and water table dynamics upslope. Taught by: Prof. Jeff McDonnell Richardson Chair in Watershed Science Peavy Hall Fall The Department of Forest Engineering FE Hillslope Hydrology.
The first is the one based on the topographic index (TWI in our paper) by Beven and Kirby (), but also by O'Loughlin (), and used both in rainfall-runoff models (i.e. TOPMODEL) and hillslope stability analysis (i.e SHALSTAB, and and SINMAP, ).
A40mð 20 m mowed, grass hillslope adjacent to a headwater stream within a ha watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA, was instrumented to identify and map the extent and dynamics of surface saturation (areas with the water table at the surface) and surface runoff source areas.
Rainfall, stream ﬂow and surface runoff from theCited by: The data we used are on a single storm basis. The runoff factors we examined include 4 factors: h, q max (peak flow discharge normalised for drainage areas, m 3 s-1 km-2), hq max (the product of h and q max) and h+q max (the sum of h and q max).
The use of h+q max follows [23, 30].The rainfall factors we examined include 12 factors: P (mm), T (rainfall duration, min), I (mean rainfall Cited by: 9. of runoff and soil erosion are to be understood at the field and catchment scale also. In recent years, it has been recognised that linking these scales of runoff and erosion may provide an approach by which accurate predictions may be made at all scales from the small hillslope to the large catchment (Wainwright et al., ).
hillslope-scale moisture • Simulated backscatter in both horizontally- and vertically-copolarized states • Stresses relationship between topography and sensor characteristics • Aggregates hillslope-scale backscatter to 3 km grid • Best suited for.
sparsely vegetated terrain/ bare soil. See. Field Measurement of Soil Erosion and Runoff Volume 68 of Boletín de suelos de la FAO Issue 68 of FAO soils bulletin, ISSN Authors: Norman Hudson, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Edition: illustrated: Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org., ISBN:Length: pages: SubjectsReviews: 1.
Digital topographic and soil information was used to estimate potential runoff-contributing areas throughout Kansas.
The results then were used to compare 91 selected subbasins representing soil, slope, and runoff variability. Potential runoff-contributing areas were estimated collectively for the processes of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess overland flow using a set of environmental.
The processes that generate runoff are reviewed and illustrated by numerical models of watershed hydrology. The spatial distribution of precipitation, spatial variability in infiltration capacity, antecedent soil moisture, and topography are important determinants of runoff at the watershed scale.
Hillslope runoff can be divided into Hortonian surface runoff—which could hardly be observed in the monitored forested slopes—and into subsurface flow. The latter consists of near-surface flow ( cm), intermediate flow or interflow ( cm) and of base flow near the bedrock zone.
The layer boundaries are irregular and their. Modeling the Effects of Vertically Variable Soil Parameters and Hillslope Shape on Runoff Benjamin L. Smith [email protected] This work is brought to you for free and open access by the University of Connecticut Graduate School at [email protected]
It has beenAuthor: Benjamin L Smith. hydrological modelling. In present study, a hillslope experimental plot is designed to study the runoff generation processes on the plot scale. The setup is designed keeping in view the natural hillslope conditions prevailing in the north western Himalayas, India Author: Arpit Chouksey, Vinit Lambey, Bhaskar R.
Nikam.Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) in August to produce new‐generation water erosion prediction technology for use by federal action agencies involved in soil and water conservation and environmental planning and assessment.
At that time, the soil erosion prediction tool in widespread use was the Universal.To clarify the runoff process on a hillslope, observations of the discharge, groundwater level and soil moisture were made on a hillslope consisting of weathered granite in the south-east area of Shiga Prefecture.
The discharge was produced mainly by unsaturated flow, and it was not con-cerned with the average of the soil-moisture storage on Cited by: 5.